丰田汽车加快改进发动机的燃油效率

本文摘要:Toyota stole a march on the global automotive industry by popularizing gas-electric hybrid engines, using its Prius brand to highlight the technology. But now that the Prius and hybrids are permanent fixtures in the automotive lineup, Toyo

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Toyota stole a march on the global automotive industry by popularizing gas-electric hybrid engines, using its Prius brand to highlight the technology. But now that the Prius and hybrids are permanent fixtures in the automotive lineup, Toyota has decided it has some catching-up to do in the category of conventional gasoline engines以普锐斯(Prius)品牌为代表,丰田汽车公司(Toyota)通过普及油电混合动力发动机技术在全球汽车行业中抢到先机。现在,普锐斯和混合动力车型早已在产品线中占到得一席之地,丰田要求接下来要在传统汽油发动机技术领域领先于输掉。Automakers like Nissan and Mazda are highly competitive in fuel efficiency ratings, using smaller, lighter powerplants to score high with consumers and governments. According to reports in the trade press, Toyota will narrow the gap shortly with two new engines that will be available in 14 variations around the world through next year. The first example has appeared in Japan, a hatchback known as Passo, powered by a 1.0-liter engine. Fuel efficiency in this model supposedly has been improved by 30 percent.日产(Nissan)、马自达(Mazda)等汽车制造商在燃料效率评级方面极具竞争力,其车型用于了较小较重的发动机,因而获得消费者和政府部门的高度评价。

据汽车行业媒体报道,丰田将利用两款全新发动机很快增大自己跟竞争对手的差距,该公司将在接下来一年把这些发动机装备到旗下14款有所不同车型上。第一款车型早已在日本面世,这款取名为Passo的掀背式轿车,其发动机享有1.0升至排量,燃料效率据信可以比原本提升30%。For more than a year, the automaker has been touting a program it calls Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA), that includes a number of automotive innovations, including engines. First off will be a 1.3-liter four-cylinder and a 1.0-liter three-cylinder that employ several advanced processes that improve fuel efficiency, including one known as an Atkinson burning cycle. Engines using the Atkinson technology previously had been used only in Toyota’s gas-electric hybrids.一年多以来,丰田仍然在鼓吹一个取名为“丰田新的全球架构”(Toyota New Global Architecture,全称TNGA)的项目,其中包括了一系列汽车技术(还包括发动机)创意。

作为这个项目的第一步,丰田将发售一款1.3升至的四缸发动机和一款1.0升至的三缸发动机,它们将使用一些先进设备技术来提升燃油效率,其中还包括一种取名为“阿特金森自燃循环”(Atkinson burning cycle)的技术。在过去,这项技术仅有被应用于丰田的油电混合动力发动机中。

Toyota is following in other carmaker’s footsteps. Honda has introduced a line of high-efficiency engines it calls Earth Dreams, while the Mazda’s is called Skyactiv. (Nissan, with its Leaf, has made itself into a leader in battery-powered cars.) All are using technologies such as fuel injection and turbo charging to improve efficiency – sometimes at the expense of power or torque – and thus comply with increasingly stringent rules in the U.S. and abroad governing carbon emissions.丰田正在跟上其他汽车制造商的步伐。本田(Honda)发售了取名为“地球之梦”(Earth Dreams)的高效节约能源系列发动机,马自达则发售了“创驰蓝天”(Skyactiv)系列发动机。【日产凭借聆风(Leaf)汽车沦为电池动力汽车领域的领导者。

】所有这些汽车制造商都在利用燃油喷气、涡轮涡轮等技术来提升燃料效率——有时甚至不会以壮烈牺牲功率或扭矩为代价——从而合乎美国和其他国家在碳排放方面日益严苛的规章条例。“We would like to achieve No. 1 performance in fuel economy and cost for all the engines that we will be developing,” said Koei Saga, senior managing director in charge of engine and transmission development, in an interview with the Automotive News at Toyota’s global headquarters.丰田负责管理发动机和传动系统研发的高级经理佐贺光荣(Koei Saga)在公司全球总部拒绝接受《汽车新闻》(Automotive News)专访时回应:“我们期望在接下来即将研发的所有发动机上构建第一流的燃油经济性和成本效益。”Saga referred to the Japanese word kanzashi, a kind of ornamental hairpin to describe “add-on” technologies, such as recirculating exhaust from the engine to generate more power without burning more fuel.佐贺光荣用日语“髪挿”(即中文的“发簪”,一种装饰性衣饰)一词来形容各种“拓展”技术,例如在不消耗更加多燃料的情况下,通过发动机废气再循环产生更加多动力。

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“We have a wide variety of kanzashi,” Saga told Automotive News.“我们有各式各样的髪挿,”佐贺告诉他《汽车新闻》。Since redesigning engines and incorporating technology require substantial capital – Toyota hasn’t clarified how much – the cost must be recouped by saving elsewhere. Published reports suggest that Toyota will accomplish this feat by creating more common parts among engines.由于新的设计发动机并且统合技术必须大量资金(丰田未解释明确数额),丰田必需在其他地方想要办法省出有这笔钱。

有数诸多报导指出,丰田将不会通过研发更好可在有所不同发动机间标准化的部件来已完成这项伟业。As the gasoline engines improve, so will the gas-electric hybrids that use them in tandem, said Andrew Coetzee, a Toyota spokesman. “Our engineers are excited,” he said, “and very eager to put every innovation on the road as fast as possible.”公司发言人安德鲁o库切回应,随着汽油发动机获得改良,油电混合动力发动机也不会随之获得提高。

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他说道:“我们的工程师都很激动,并迫不及待想要让每一项创意技术尽早投入使用。”Full expression of TNGA, including redesigned suspensions and other systems that improve handling and drivability, may not be apparent in the U.S. for another two to three years, when Toyota is expected to introduce its newest generation Camry.TNGA项目还包括新的设计的悬架以及其他提高操纵和驾驶员体验的系统,而体现该项目成果的车型在近两三年还会登岸美国市场,这段时间里丰田预计将发售近期一代凯美瑞(Camry)。

Meantime, expect to see a spate of engines featuring higher fuel efficiency from Toyota, along with incremental improvements in other redesigned parts. The No. 1 automaker from Japan doesn’t intend to give up its title easily, and doesn’t seem content to sit in idle while competitors like Volkswagen AG races ahead.与此同时,我们预计将不会看见丰田发售一系列具备较高燃油效率的发动机产品,以及在其他新的设计的部件上构建增量改良。这家日本汽车制造商并不想只能将自己的“全球第一”称号拱手让人,在德国大众汽车公司(Volkswagen AG)这样的竞争对手向前迈向时,丰田或许并不心怀坐困愁城。


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